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This is a Malay name; the name "Ibrahim" is a patronymic, not a family name, and the person should be referred to by the given name, "Anwar".
Yang Berhormat Dato' Seri
Leader of the Opposition of Malaysia
28 August 2008
Monarch Mizan Zainal Abidin
Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Preceded by Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Member of the Malaysian Parliament
for Permatang Pauh
28 August 2008
Preceded by Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
1982 – 1999
Preceded by Zabidi Ali
Succeeded by Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Leader of the People's Pact
28 August 2008
Preceded by Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia
1 December 1993 – 2 September 1998
Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad
Preceded by Ghafar Baba
Succeeded by Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Born 10 August 1947 (1947-08-10) (age 62)
Cherok Tok Kun, Malaya
Political party PR-PKR
Spouse(s) Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Children Nurul Izzah Anwar
Alma mater University of Malaya
Dato' Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim (born 10 August 1947) is a Malaysian politician who served as Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister from 1993 to 1998. Early in his career, he became a protégé of the Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad, but subsequently emerged as the most prominent critic of Mahathir's administration.
In 1999, he was sentenced to six years in prison for corruption, and in 2000, to another nine years for sodomy. In 2004, the Federal Court reversed the second conviction and he was released. In July 2008, he was arrested over allegations he sodomised a male aide.
On 26 August 2008, Anwar won the Permatang Pauh by-election with a majority of 15,671, returning to Parliament as leader of the Malaysian opposition. He currently faces new sodomy charges in the Malaysian courts.
1 Early years
2 Financial crisis
3 Charges of corruption and sodomy
4 Release from prison
5 Political future
5.1 Permatang Pauh Election Campaign
5.2 Landslide victory
6 Member of Parliament
6.1 Petition against Najib Razak
6.2 Struggle to assemble a majority coalition
6.3 Pakatan Rakyat Gains in Perak, Sarawak and Terengganu
6.4 Recent Gains
6.5 Allegations of BN Bribing Pakatan MPs
7 New allegations of sodomy
7.1 Arrest, detention and release on bail
7.2 Sodomy Trial
7.3 International reaction
7.4 Controversy regarding evidence in the sodomy case
8.1 Report Against Police Chief and Attorney General
8.2 Altantuya Murder Case
8.3 Fabrication of Sodomy Case
9 Fuel price debate
10 Chin Peng
11 Publications and speeches
12 Media and news
13 Notes and references
13.1 Other references
14 External links
14.1 Home pages
14.2 Affiliations and appointments
 Early years
Anwar was born in Cherok Tok Kun, a village on the mainland side of the northern Malaysian state of Penang, to an Indian Muslim hospital porter, Ibrahim Abdul Rahman (later to join politics and retire as Parliamentary Secretary in the Ministry of Health) and Che Yan, a housewife (and later UMNO politician). He was educated at University of Malaya, where he read Malay Studies. Prior to that, he took his secondary education at the Malay College Kuala Kangsar.
From 1968 to 1971, as a student, Anwar was the president of a Muslim students organisation, Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia (PKPIM). He was one of the protem committee of Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM) or Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia which was founded in 1971. He was also elected President of the Malaysian Youth Council or Majlis Belia Malaysia (MBM). In 1974, Anwar was arrested during student protests against rural poverty and hunger. This came as a report surfaced stating that a family died from starvation in a village in Baling, in the state of Kedah, despite the fact that it never happened. He was imprisoned under the Internal Security Act, which allows for detention without trial, and spent 20 months in the Kamunting Detention Centre.
In 1968-1971, he was first groomed in the National Union of Malaysian Muslim Students (Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia, PKPIM) as the president of the Union. In 1982, Anwar, who was the founding leader and second president of a youth Islamic organisation called Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM), shocked his liberal supporters by joining the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), led by Mahathir bin Mohamad, who had become prime minister in 1981. He moved up the political ranks quickly: his first ministerial office was that of Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports in 1983; after that, he headed the agriculture ministry in 1984 before becoming Minister of Education in 1986. By then, speculation was rife about Anwar's ascent to the Deputy Prime Minister's position as it was a commonly-occurring phenomenon in Malaysia for the Education Minister to assume the position of Deputy PM in the near future.
During his tenure as Education Minister, Anwar introduced numerous pro-Malay policies in the national school curriculum. One of the major changes that he did was to rename the national language from Bahasa Malaysia to Bahasa Melayu. Non-Malays criticized this move as it would cause the younger generation to be detached from the national language, since they would attribute it to being something that belongs to the Malays and not to Malaysians.
U.S. Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen (right) meets with Anwar Ibrahim (left) in his Pentagon office.In 1991 Anwar was appointed Minister of Finance. In 1993, he became Mahathir's Deputy Prime Minister after winning the Deputy Presidency of UMNO against Ghafar Baba. There is report on Anwar using large cash payments to win support. Anwar is alleged to have resorted to money politics to secure his position as deputy president of UMNO. Anwar's followers were witnessed by even foreign journalists handing out packets of money to acquire support of UMNO division leaders. These followers are said to be working under Anwar's instructions. Mohamad Sabu, a prominent member of PAS questioned where were about 300 million stocks of Petronas Dagang were invested because of the sudden change in UMNO Sabah's delegates' allegiance from Ghafar to Anwar.Anwar was being groomed to succeed Mahathir as prime minister, and frequently alluded in public to his "son-father" relationship with Mahathir; in early 1997, Mahathir appointed Anwar to be acting Prime Minister while he took a two-month holiday.
Towards the end of the 1990s, however, the relationship with Mahathir had begun to deteriorate, triggered by their conflicting views on governance. In Mahathir's absence, Anwar had independently taken radical steps to improve the country's governing mechanisms which were in direct conflict with Mahathir's capitalist policies. Issues such as how Malaysia would respond to a financial crisis were often at the forefront of this conflict.
Anwar's frontal attack against what he described as the widespread culture of nepotism and cronyism within UMNO (and the ruling coalition as a whole) angered Mahathir, as did his attempts to dismantle the protectionist policies that Mahathir had set up. "Cronyism" was identified by Anwar as a major cause of corruption and misappropriation of funds in the country. The events of late-1998 marked the beginning of Anwar's descent within UMNO and his subsequent ouster from the party and from Malaysian politics.
 Financial crisis
During the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997 Anwar, in his capacity as finance minister, supported the International Monetary Fund (IMF) plan for recovery. He also instituted an austerity package that slashed government spending by 18%, cut ministerial salaries and deferred major investment projects. Large-scale infrastructure development projects known as "mega projects" were set back as well, despite being a cornerstone of Mahathir's plans for developing the nation.
Although many Malaysian companies faced the threat of bankruptcy, Anwar declared: "There is no question of any bailout. The banks will be allowed to protect themselves and the government will not interfere." Anwar advocated a free market approach, sympathetic to foreign investment and trade liberalisation, whereas Mahathir favored currency and foreign investment controls, blaming unchecked speculation by currency speculators like George Soros for the shrinking economy. There is disagreement among economists whether Anwar's policies would have been more or less successful than Mahathir's. By the time Mahathir decided to impose currency controls and preventive measures to keep hedge funds in check, the Malaysian economy had plummeted to its lowest level yet since the recession of the early-1980s.
In 1998 Newsweek magazine named Anwar the "Asian of the Year." However, in that year, matters between Anwar and Mahathir came to a head around the time of the quadrennial UMNO General Assembly. The Youth wing of UMNO, headed by Anwar's associate, Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, gave notice that it would initiate a debate on "cronyism and nepotism". The response was swift, as Mahathir issued lists of cronies who had benefited from government share allocations and privatisations. The list included Anwar and Zahid, along with several of Anwar's other allies. In the list, Anwar's father and his two brothers are showed to have received shares allocated by the government for the bumiputra. His father Datuk Ibrahim Abdul Rahman and his brothers, Farizan and Marzukhi holds shares amounting to more than 7.1 million units in three companies. On 2nd May 1998, Dato' Ibrahim Abdul Rahman, owned 250,000 shares of Pengkalen Holdings Berhad and 3,790500 on Nissan Industrial Oxygen Incorporated. Farizon owned 250,000 shares of Pengkalen Holdings Berhad. Marzukhi owned 2,800,000 shares in Penas Corporation. In the list, Ibrahim Abdul Rahman owned 2,000,000 shares in Industrial Oxygen Incorporated Bhd on 1993..
 Charges of corruption and sodomy
Anwar continued his assault on what he called the rampant corruption within Mahathir's administration, by attempting to impose transparent audits on major conglomerates and business empires, which, he alleged, had been overcharging for government projects and evading taxes. At the UMNO General Assembly, a book, 50 Dalil Kenapa Anwar Tidak Boleh Jadi PM ("50 Reasons Why Anwar Cannot Become Prime Minister") was circulated containing graphic allegations as well as accusations of corruption against Anwar. This book carried the byline Khalid Jafri, an ex-editor of the government-controlled newspaper Utusan Malaysia and former editor-in-chief of a failed magazine, Harian National. Anwar obtained a court injunction to prevent further distribution of the book and filed a defamation action against the author. In August, police charged the author of the book with malicious publishing of false news.
Among the allegations in the book was that Anwar is homosexual and a serial sodomite. The police were instructed to investigate the veracity of the claims. The author died in 2005 of complications from diabetes, but not before the High Court found that he had committed libel and awarded Anwar millions of ringgit in compensation.
Anwar was fired from the Cabinet in September, amid police reports that he was under investigation. The following day, he was expelled from UMNO. Dr. Munawar Anees, Anwar's former speechwriter, and Sukma Darmawan Sasmita Atmadja, Anwar's adoptive brother, were arrested under suspicion of engaging in homosexual acts. Five days later, they were given a jail sentence of six months after pleading guilty to "unnatural sex" with Anwar. They later recanted their confessions, and appealed the sentence, claiming to have been coerced into pleading guilty. Anees made a statutory declaration to that effect. However, Dr. Munawar's appeal was rejected by the High Court on October 29, 2008 upholding his guilty sentence.Two of Anwar's secretaries, Ezam Mohamad and Mohamad Azmin Ali, were both held separately as part of police investigations into the "50 reasons" book. Both were later released.
A few days later Anwar addressed a protest gathering of nearly 100,000 people in Kuala Lumpur, after which a number of his supporters marched to Mahathir's then official residence demanding reformasi (reform) and Mahathir's resignation. Such a mass gathering had never been seen before in Malaysia and was a cause for concern in the government. Anwar was arrested that night, as were those of several of Anwar's supporters, although most of them were later released.
Anwar Ibrahim being escorted by the police to the Federal Court of Malaysia on February 4, 2002, he was released from prison on September 2, 2004 after his conviction on sodomy was reversed.On September 29, 1998 Anwar appeared in court and pleaded innocent to charges of corruption and sodomy. A photo of Anwar with a black eye (which he incurred from a beating by then Inspector General of Police Rahim Noor) and one hand raised became a symbol of the political opposition in many reformasi posters.
The black eye was explained by Mahathir Mohamad and Rahim Noor as being "self-inflicted" and caused by "pressing a glass over his eyes". Only after a Royal Commission was convened did Rahim Noor admit that he had administered the beating to Anwar   Rahim apologized for the incident in August 2005 . Both Anwar and Rahim Noor have denied the allegations that Anwar was sodomised in prison to "plant" the forensic evidence of anal sex.
During the trial, a mattress was presented to court, supposedly stained with Anwar's semen. This was submitted as DNA evidence of Anwar's sexual acts. Anwar denied having anything to do with the mattress, although the DNA tests came out positive. Dr. Lim Kong Boon, a DNA chemist, testified during the trial that DNA taken from 10 of 13 semen stains on the mattress matched Anwar's DNA. The defense team implied that DNA samples may have been taken from Anwar, while unconscious, after his beating in police custody, to create false forensics evidence to frame Anwar; however, High Court Judge Augustine Paul accepted that DNA evidence. 
Anwar was also accused of corruption relating to the police investigation into and arrest of the author of 50 Reasons. He was also accused of sodomy with his wife's chauffeur, Azizan Abu Bakar. Judge Augustine Paul wrote 320 page judgment in the case, the longest judgment in the country's history.  In that judgment, he explains the evidence involved and the rulings he made.
During the trial, Mahathir appeared on Malaysian television in a special appearance to explain the arrest of his deputy. This was one of several occasions in which Mahathir declared Anwar guilty of sodomy and homosexual acts, even as the trial still was underway. The government included the statements of the purported victims of Anwar's sodomy attacks, evidence that was widely considered to be tainted. Furthermore, the prosecution was unable to accurately decide on a date that the alleged acts of anal sex had occurred - the government originally alleged that a sodomy had occurred inside a building that had not been constructed at the time of the alleged event. Furthermore, the Attorney General's prosecution team (headed by Abdul Gani Patail) also submitted a scenario in which Dr Munawar Anees took an overnight flight from Britain all the way to Malaysia to be sodomized by Anwar, and flew back to Britain after that. The infamous "stained mattress" that was taken in and out of court over 20 times throughout the duration of the trial, was supposedly the same one that Anwar did his homosexual acts and extramarital sex on. However, according to the evidence, the sexual acts had taken place on the mattress a few years ago, and yet the DNA evidence obtained from it were rather recent in age.
On April 14, 1999, Anwar was sentenced to six years in prison for corruption and, on August 8, 2000, nine years in prison for sodomy. The sentences were to be served consecutively, and Anwar was given no credit for the six months he spent in jail during the trial. The following year, Anwar's corruption conviction was upheld by Malaysia's Court of Appeal. In July 2002, Anwar lost his final appeal against the corruption conviction in the Federal Court.
In a speech during the proceedings against him, Anwar explained what he believed to be the underlying motive behind his persecution. He told the court: "I objected to the use of massive public funds to rescue the failed businesses of his (Mahathir's) children and cronies." Both Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch expressed doubts about the fairness of the trials.   Amnesty International subsequently designated Anwar as a prisoner of conscience. The trial also provoked international criticism. Then-U.S. Vice President Al Gore denounced Anwar's trial as a "mockery", but Mahathir rejected all such international criticism as "foreign interference."
Anwar's wife, Wan Azizah Ismail, subsequently formed Parti Keadilan Nasional (the National Justice Party, later known as Parti Keadilan Rakyat or the People's Justice Party), which based its platform on campaigning for Anwar's release and reformasi. At the following general election, the then-National Justice Party performed poorly in the election, only winning five parliamentary seats.
 Release from prison
On September 2, 2004, a panel of three judges of the Federal Court (Malaysia's highest court) overturned the sodomy conviction by 2 to 1, finding contradictions in the prosecution's case. However, the judges noted "We find evidence to confirm that the appellants were involved in homosexual activities and we are more inclined to believe that the alleged incident at Tivoli Villa did happen."
Anwar completed his term for corruption after his sentence was being reduced for good behaviour. Although the point was by now moot, an appeal on the corruption charges was heard on September 6, 2004. Under Malaysian law a person is banned from political activities for five years after the end of his sentence. Success in this appeal would have allowed him to return to politics immediately. On September 7, the court agreed to hear Anwar's appeal. However, on September 15, the of Court of Appeal ruled unanimously that its previous decision to uphold a High Court ruling that found Anwar guilty was in order, relegating Anwar to the sidelines of Malaysian politics until April 14, 2008. The only way for Anwar to be freed from this stricture would have been for him to receive a pardon from the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
At the time of his release from prison, Anwar was reportedly suffering from serious back problems, which his family said was the result of the beating by the ex-police chief. However, the UMNO-owned newspaper, the New Straits Times, alleged that the injuries had actually been caused by a fall from a horse in 1993 during Anwar's tenure as deputy prime minister. His wife had argued during his imprisonment that he required treatment for his condition at a clinic in Germany. The government refused, claiming that such treatment was readily available in Malaysia, offering medical treatment if necessary. However, in September 2004, after the Federal Court quashed his conviction for sodomy, Anwar was free to travel to Munich for back surgery.
Since his release from prison, Anwar has held teaching positions at St Antony's College, Oxford, where he was a visiting fellow and senior associate member, at Johns Hopkins School of Advance International Studies in Washington DC as a Distinguished Senior Visiting Fellow, and as a visiting professor in the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. In March 2006 he was appointed as Honorary President of the London-based organization AccountAbility (Institute of Social and Ethical AccountAbility). 
In July 2006, Anwar was elected Chair of the Washington-based Foundation for the Future . In this capacity, he signed the October 1, 2006 letter to Robin Cleveland of the World Bank, requesting the transfer of the secondment of Shaha Riza from the US Department of State to the Foundation for the Future. This transaction led to Paul Wolfowitz's resignation as president of the organization. He was one of the signatories of A Common Word Between Us and You in 2007, an open letter by Islamic scholars to Christian leaders, calling for peace and understanding.
 Political future
In November 2006, Anwar announced he planned to run for Parliament in 2008, after his disqualification expired. Anwar has been critical of government policies since his release from prison, most notably of the controversial New Economic Policy (NEP), which provides affirmative action for the Bumiputras. The policy sets a number of quotas, such as for units of housing and initial public offerings, that must be met.
Malaysian opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim announcing his intention to contest in a by-election to enter parliament.He is also the Advisor of Parti Keadilan Rakyat, the party of which his wife Dr. Wan Azizah is president. He was in the forefront in organising a November 2007 mass rally, called the 2007 Bersih Rally, which took place in the Dataran Merdeka Kuala Lumpur to demand clean and fair elections. The gathering was organised by BERSIH, a coalition comprising political parties and civil society groups, and drew supporters from all over the country.
The 2008 election date, however, was set for 8 March 2008, sparking criticisms that Barisan Nasional called for early elections in a bid to deny Anwar's plans for a return to Parliament. In response, Anwar's wife, Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, declared that she would step down should she retain her Permatang Pauh parliamentary seat to force a by-election in which Anwar himself would contest.
When asked about the possibility of Anwar becoming the next Prime Minister, former leader Tun Dr. Mahathir reacted by saying rather sarcastically, "He would make a good Prime Minister of Israel".
On April 14, 2008, Anwar celebrated his official return to the political stage, as his ban from public office expired a decade after he was fired as Deputy Prime Minister. One of the main reasons the opposition seized a third of parliamentary seats and five states in the worst ever showing for the Barisan Nasional coalition that has ruled for half a century, was due to him leading at the helm. A gathering of more than 1,000 supporters greeted Anwar in a rally welcoming his return to politics. Police interrupted Anwar after he had addressed the rally for nearly two hours and called for him to stop the gathering since there was no legal permission for the rally.
On April 29, 2008, after 10 years of absence, he returned to the Parliament, albeit upon invitation as a spouse guest of Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, People's Justice Party and the first female opposition leader in Malaysian Parliament's history. Anwar Ibrahim stated he is confident that he can win over enough government legislators in a parliamentary vote in September to end over 50 years of rule by one party. His party pledged to stage a confidence vote on September 16 against Abdullah Badawi and needed the support of just 30 government legislators in the 222-seat lower house of parliament, but missed Anwar's own deadline. Prior to this they had hoped to sway ruling party lawmakers from the states of Sabah and Sarawak to oust the UMNO party from power for the first time since Malaysia won independence in 1957.
On July 27, 2008, Anwar Ibrahim said that he aimed to return to Parliament if a court ordered a by-election near his home town of Permatang Pauh in Penang. He said on July 31 that he would contest a by-election for the parliamentary seat of Permatang Pauh, which was being vacated by his wife in order to expedite his return to political office. His wife Wan Azizah said she handed her letter of resignation to the parliament speaker on 31 July. Party officials said that the by-election had to be held within 60 days.
 Permatang Pauh Election Campaign
Main article: Permatang Pauh by-election, 2008
Anwar Ibrahim making his campaign rounds in the constituency of Permatang Pauh with his wife Wan Azizah.The Election Commission (EC) has fixed the nomination day for the Permatang Pauh by-election on August 16, with polling to be held ten days later on August 26. Some 58,459 voters in the Permatang Pauh constituency would be eligible to vote on August 26, a working Tuesday, adding that the figure also include 490 postal voters. Umno Seberang Jaya assemblyman Datuk Arif Shah Omar Shah is the Barisan Nasional leadership’s choice to face Anwar Ibrahim by-election.
Anwar said: "Barisan Nasional is clearly overwhelmed. It's no longer a by-election. It's more than that". Deputy Prime Minister Najib Razak admitted the ruling party was the underdog: "It is going to be an uphill task but nothing is impossible in politics."
 Landslide victory
Anwar Ibrahim was victorious in the Permatang Pauh by-election held on August 26, 2008. Muhammad Muhammad Taib, information chief of the UMNO, stated: "Yes of course we have lost . . . we were the underdogs going into this race." Anwar won by a large majority against Arif Shah Omar Shah of the National Front coalition, according to Election Commission officials. Reuters reported "Anwar Ibrahim has won with a majority of 16,210 votes"; according to news website Malaysiakini (http://www.malaysiakini.com), Anwar won 26,646 votes, while the government's Arif Omar won 10,436 votes. People's Justice Party spokewoman Ginie Lim told the BBC: "We won already. We are far ahead."
Final results announced by the Election Commission revealed that Anwar Ibrahim won 31,195 of the estimated 47,000 votes cast in the district, while Arif Shah Omar Shah received 15,524 votes and a third candidate had 92 votes. According to his party and information chief Tian Chua, Anwar Ibrahim will be sworn in as a member of parliament on August 28 Thursday after a landslide by-election victory that ended his decade-long political exile.
On August 28, 2008, Anwar, dressed in a dark blue traditional Malay outfit and black "songkok" hat, took the oath at the main chamber of Parliament house in Kuala Lumpur, as MP for Permatang Pauh at 10.03 a.m. before Speaker Tan Sri Pandikar Amin Mulia. He formally declared Anwar the leader of the 3-party opposition alliance. With his daughter Nurul Izzah Anwar, also a parliamentarian, Anwar announced: "I'm glad to be back after a decade. The prime minister has lost the mandate of the country and the nation." Anwar needs 30 government lawmakers' votes to defect in order to form a government.
 Member of Parliament
Anwar Ibrahim being sworn in as a Malaysian Member of Parliament on August 28, 2008.On August 28, 2008 just after being sworn in as an MP, Anwar Ibrahim staged a dramatic walkout with 81 opposition lawmakers hours later in a row over controversial DNA sampling legislation. Anwar has alleged that the legislation which would force suspected criminals to give DNA samples was targeted at him, as he previously refused to provide a DNA sample after again being arrested on sodomy charges.
On September 2, 2008, Anwar said he would dismantle controversial positive-discrimination policies for Muslim Malays if he seizes power in the multicultural country. The Malaysian New Economic Policy (NEP) launched in the early 1970s would be replaced by a system to boost all poor Malaysians, whether they are majority Malays or from the minority Chinese and Indian communities. "We will do everything in our power and disposal to help and assist the poor and the marginalised, which means the vast majority of the Malays and the poor Chinese and the poor Indians, but we do it on a needs basis," he said. He also promised to abandon the Approved Permits (AP) scheme for importing cars, which it is claimed has corruptly enriched a small number of Malay entrepreneurs.  Anwar has also promised that he will review the Government's Budget 2009 and present one that promoted economic growth, equal wealth distribution, lower taxes and an open tender for government contracts. Among measures he outlined were ways to stimulate local and foreign investment, reduce the 4.8% deficit of the gross domestic product, reduce fuel prices and give tax rebates as a business incentive. Others measures include curbing public expenditure on mega projects and reforming the system of awarding Approved Permits.
Anwar Ibrahim said on September 10, 2008 that he will topple Malaysia's government by early next week despite a trip abroad by ruling coalition lawmakers that he claims is aimed at thwarting his plans. About 50 Barisan Nasional lawmakers left for a farming study tour in Taiwan earlier this week amid opposition accusations that coalition leaders had sent them there to keep them away from Anwar and to dissuade some of them from defecting. He claimed to have made tacit pacts with dozens of lawmakers in recent months, and insisted that he was still "very much" on track for his target date of toppling the government.
Anwar Ibrahim speaks at an election campaignOn September 14, 2008 Anwar announced that a mass rally would be held against a government crackdown which he says is aimed at preventing him from seizing power within the next few days. The government takeover which is slated for next Tuesday could be delayed by the series of arrests under tough internal security laws. The arrests on Friday of an opposition politician Teresa Kok, a prominent blogger Raja Petra Kamararuddin and a journalist raised fears of a widespread campaign against dissent. The opposition alliance said it expected some 30,000 supporters to gather for the rally at Kelana Jaya stadium The Malaysian police have allowed Anwar to hold a rally on Monday protesting against a government crackdown widely seen as a move to derail his plans to take power according to his party.  Anwar Ibrahim said Tuesday 15 September, 2008 that he has pledges of support from more ruling coalition lawmakers than he needs to topple the government, and he urged the prime minister Abdullah Badawi to give up power voluntarily and peacefully. Anwar refused to give an exact number or to name the lawmakers, saying they will be subject to harassment by the government or even detention. Four demands had been issued to the PM in a letter sent Monday 15 September. The demands are that MPs are not stopped from defecting; the Internal Security Act not be used to detain defecting or PR MPs; a state of emergency should not be declared; and no roadblocks be set up to stop MPs from going to Parliament.He said the opposition alliance is now seeking a meeting with Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi to stake claim to the government and to give him the opportunity to exit gracefully. "We want the transition to be peaceful. That's why we are not giving an ultimatum to Abdullah", he said. 
On May 10, 2009 Anwar kept up pressure on the Malaysian government, saying that it should apologise to P. Uthayakumar and other Hindraf leaders for detaining them under the Internal Security Act.
 Petition against Najib Razak
On April 2, 2009 Anwar and the opposition organised a petition urging the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to delay the appointment of Datuk Seri Najib Razak as prime minister until his reputation has been cleared by an independent commission. The letter was signed by Anwar, PAS president Datuk Seri Abdul Hadi Awang, and DAP advisor Lim Kit Siang, as well as 78 other MPs that represent the Pakatan Rakyat coalition. Anwar continued to attack Najib first day as prime minister, stating he found inconsistencies in the latter's decision to release 13 Internal Security Act detainees. He said as long as the ISA existed, Barisan Nasional could still detain citizens at will.
 Struggle to assemble a majority coalition
Anwar has already missed several deadlines he himself set for the transfer of power, each of which came and went: the most recent was Tuesday 16 September 2008. Anwar said he would need more time, and the recalibration of his message has not gone unnoticed: Deputy Prime Minister Najib Razak chose that day to initiate a broadband internet program Anwar opposes, saying that he had not doubted that the government would still be in office on 16 September. Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi too pointed out that Anwar had missed his own deadline, and dismissed his claim to have secured the defection of 30 MPs.
On 17 September 2008, Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi said that Anwar's recent actions have affected political and economic stability. He stated that Anwar had spread lies about the economic situation in the country including that no foreign direct investment was coming in and that the nation was no longer competitive.
On 18 September 2008 Anwar demanded an emergency Parliament session for a no confidence vote in the government, insisting he has secured enough defections from the ruling coalition to topple it. He said he had sent a letter to Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, asking that the special session be held no later than Tuesday 23 September 2008. The Parliament was in recess until mid-October. "Any delay in his response would be interpreted as nothing short of sabotage of democratic process and abuse of executive powers," he told reporters. "It is therefore critical for the prime minister to respond." He says he can't reveal the names of MPs who have defected until they demonstrate their loyalty in Parliament and to protect them from possible detention or other extrajudicial efforts by the government to prevent them from crossing over. Anwar said that if Abdullah fails to convene the emergency session, he may meet the King Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin to stake his claim to government. By 25 September Anwar had still not amassed enough votes, creating doubts for Malaysians about whether he was really ready to take power, particularly in light of his failure to meet his own 16 September deadline for the transition of power. In the interim, UMNO had its own party meeting  to broker Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi's step down from power in June 2009, a year earlier than previously promised 
On 7 October 2008, Anwar said he still has enough support to topple the government and is deliberating over how to carry out his delayed plan to seize power. He mentioned the 31 MPs who want to cross over to the opposition have not lost confidence, nor have they reneged on their commitment to crossover. Anwar has set another deadline to seize power which is by December before the end of the year. Anwar stated the takeover would be peaceful because Malaysia could not afford the Thai or Filipino mob style violence. Anwar stated that convening a special session of the Parliament to debate a no-confidence motion would be pointless. "Under the Malaysian system, the Parliament's speaker has the power to include or exclude items from its daily business," he said. Experts agree that among the options open to Anwar is for BN politicians to symbolically 'cross the floor' of the Parliament to the opposition benches, showing the government it no longer has a majority. Another possibility is to invoke the help of Malaysia's King, Tunku Mizan Zainal Abidin, who has the powers to sack Prime Ministers who no longer have a parliamentary majority, as well as asking majority leaders to form a government.
On 24 October 2008, Anwar admitted problems with his stalled bid to topple Umno's majority, saying that Pakatan Rakyat is running out of options to create a majority. His "credibility among ordinary Malaysians has been somewhat dented after Sept 16 and the new promise of forming the Government has not generated the sort of anticipation or excitement as before." Media within the country have taken an increasingly hostile view towards Anwar's protestations and failed threats to assemble a majority government.
Anwar has stated that taking over of federal government did not materialise because a letter to negotiate the matter sent to Prime Minister Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi was not entertained by him. Another reason he gave was that Barisan Nasional MPs wanting to defect had put condition that their names not be revealed until they were ready to do so.
 Pakatan Rakyat Gains in Perak, Sarawak and Terengganu
On 16 November, 2008 Anwar received membership application forms from Gabriel Adit Demong, an independent Sarawak state assemblymen and from 11,752 individuals accompanied him. Anwar said Sarawakians were now ready for change, saying Adit had volunteered to lead a recruitment drive for more members for PR. Anwar has said that PKR has set its sights on wresting Sarawak from Barisan Nasional in the next state election and the work will begin in December 2008. He mentioned that Sarawak was a state rich in petroleum, gas, timber and other natural resources but its people remained poor and were hungry for change.
In the recent by-election in Kuala Terengganu on January 17, 2009 Anwar stated the win by the opposition which increased opposition seats in Parliament to 83, showed momentum for political reform had gained strength "The victory is proof that the people are still thirsty for change" he said in a statement.
On 25 January, 2009 Datuk Nasarudin Hashim, Umno Perak’s assemblyman for Bota, has quit UMNO with immediate effect and crossed over to PKR, citing the interests of his constituents. Anwar has stated that the defection reflected the sentiments of the voters, primarily the Malays in Datuk Nasarudin Hashim's constituency. However this gain was reversed during the Perak constitutional crisis that started in January 25, 2009 when BN took over the state government of Perak. On March 3, 2009 Anwar Ibrahim stated the Perak state assembly had to be dissolved because the current crisis was getting out of hand. He said that Pakatan Rakyat wants voters to decide who they want to lead the state.
On May 14, 2009 Anwar said that Pakatan Rakyat were ready to meet with Prime Minister Najib to resolve the Perak state crisis. He however said that best solution was to dissolve the state assembly and call for a fresh election to determine the valid state government of Perak.
 Recent Gains
On 18 July, 2009 Anwar welcomed Datuk Chua Jui Meng's decision to quit MCA to join Parti Keadilan Rakyat. Chua said that he was joining PKR to help preserve the two-party system that had emerged after the 2008 general elections. He said that this system was under attack by UMNO-led government. Chua's decision was prompted by the sudden death of a PR political aide, Teoh Beng Hock. Former MCA Senator Datuk David Yeoh and former Lumut MP Datuk Yap Yit Thong also announced they were joining PKR at the same time.
 Allegations of BN Bribing Pakatan MPs
A report was lodged against former Kedah menteri besar had been caught on closed circuit television camera offering money to a Pakatan Rakyat assemblyman to cross over to Barisan Nasional. Opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim claimed that this was covered in an operation conducted by the then MACC.  Anwar claimed that Mahadzir’s agents were alleged to have offered up to RM5 million for a defection. 
Anwar also spoke of three police reports lodged by former Bukit Selambau assemblyman V Arumugam. The reports were lodged over various harassments including an alleged threat that he could end up like former Lunas state representative Joe Fernandez if he persisted in his political activities. Fernandez died after being shot three times in 2000. Anwar also showed a photograph of three bullets sent to PKR Bakar Arang state representative Tan Wei Shu. It was alleged to have been sent when Tan declined an offer to defect. Tan made a police report but claims no police action was taken.
 New allegations of sodomy
On June 29, 2008, online news portal Malaysiakini reported that an aide of Anwar Ibrahim had lodged a police report claiming that he had been sodomised by Anwar. The news has since been updated with reports that SMS messages are being distributed claiming that the person who made the report is Anwar's aide, Mohd Saiful Bukhari Azlan, who was arrested and allegedly forced to make a false confession. The same text message also claimed the possibility of Anwar being arrested.
Wan Azizah Wan Ismail accused the government of orchestrating the allegations, which she condemned as "political murder" against her husband. She produced a photograph of the aide with a staff member of Deputy Prime Minister and said it proved a link of a government conspiracy. Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi denied it and stressed that his government was not behind the latest sodomy allegation against Parti Keadilan Rakyat de facto leader Anwar. On the allegation by Anwar's wife where she had shown the photograph taken with a staff member of Deputy Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister, Najib Razak explained that the picture was taken three months ago when Mohd Saiful went to his office to apply a for government scholarship.
Anwar Ibrahim outside the Turkish embassy with his supporters.On June 30, Anwar moved into the compound of the Turkish Embassy in Kuala Lumpur allegedly at the invitation of Turkish ambassador Barlas Özener, who denied he invited Anwar and told Foreign Minister of Malaysia Dato' Seri Dr. Rais Yatim that Anwar had come on “his own accord for a visit”. Rais added Malaysia was concerned that getting protection or shelter from foreign missions would become a trend for those who violated the country’s law. Anwar Ibrahim said that he would leave by 11 a.m. British time, and he never sought political asylum, but sought refuge there on "humanitarian grounds": "If the government gives me a categorical undertaking for my personal safety I will leave (the embassy) now." To clear his name, Ibrahim filed a lawsuit against his 23-year old male aide who accused him of sodomy, in the Kuala Lumpur High Court. Anwar left the embassy after a meeting between Malaysia's Foreign Minister, Rais Yatim, and Turkish ambassador Barlas Ozener. He told the Associated Press he had made the decision to leave after the government had made "all the undertakings to assure his personal safety".
Anwar on July 1, 2008 vowed before 7,000 people at Shah Alam rally in Melawati Stadium to seize power soon, mobilizing his campaign against the government amid the sodomy charge. His road shows will begin with Padang Timur, Petaling Jaya as its first stop. Abdullah Ahmad Badawi is also under pressure from some of his own party members in Barisan Nasional to step down. Meanwhile, Deputy Inspector-General of Police Ismail Omar on July 2 classified the crime charged as sodomy, based on a Kuala Lumpur Hospital medical report of anal sex upon the alleged victim, Saiful Bukhari Azlan, 23, an aide. He was a student of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The incident allegedly took place at Desa Damansara condominiums, Damansara Heights. Sodomy, even if consensual, is punishable by up to 20 years imprisonment and whipping under Section 377B of the Malaysian Penal Code.
Criminal Investigation Department director Bakri Zinin on July 7 stated that Anwar's accuser, Saiful Bahri, who had not been seen in public since July 2, would remain under police protection until termination of investigations. On July 9, 2008, Anwar asked an Islamic court to investigate his former aide. Under Islamic law, anyone making accusations of a sexual crime, such as sodomy, has to produce four witnesses to back up their claim. The witnesses must be credible and male. There was also a unreported police raid at One World Hotel in Selangor, where the police demanded that the hotel release CCTV footage of a connected incident. Details of the raid have yet to be confirmed.
On August 15, 2008 Mohd Saiful Bukhari Azlan swore on the Quran that he was sodomised by Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim according to Federal Territory Mosque Imam Ramlang Porigi. Ramlang said that he was one of four imams present for the ceremony that was held between 6.15pm and 6.20pm.  Ramlang Porigi said that Mohd Saiful Bukhari Azlan’s Quranic oath or “sumpah muhabalah” was technically wrong. “I was only there as a witness, to listen in,” he elaborated, noting that Saiful made two errors while reciting the oath: the first when he mispronounced the word for God and had Ramlang correct him; and the second when he confused the date of the alleged sodomy incident and corrected himself. It was supposed to have happened on June 26, but Saiful slipped and said Aug 26 instead. Ramlang described that Saiful looked far from regretful or fearful, for someone who had just uttered dreadful words that essentially asked God to rain down his just vengeance on him and his descendants if he lied. Ramlang reiterated that he had only been given the role of witness to play that day because he had been ordered to do so by his superiors. However, he declined to name them. As a simple government servant, he had only followed orders.
On September 10, 2008 Anwar Ibrahim's legal defence team fought to prevent the politically-charged case from being moved to the High Court. His supporters fear authorities might be able to manipulate the case more easily at the High Court, and that seeking a transfer is little more than a delaying tactic. In a win for the defence, the Sessions Court judge made the unusual decision of setting a September 24 hearing for the Anwar's defence team to present its case against transfer to the High Court. Anwar argued that the Attorney General, who is under investigation for tampering with evidence against him in 1998, has no right to sign the order to move the case to the High Court.  The transfer to the High Court was postponed once again until October 7 while the court considers the case and applicable law. 
 Arrest, detention and release on bail
Malaysian police issued an arrest warrant on July 15 to Anwar Ibrahim, who was formally a suspect in the sodomy crime, a non-bailable offence. Investigating officer Jude Pereira signed and issued the letter requiring Anwar to appear at a police station for questioning before Wednesday at 2 p.m. (0600 GMT). He can be held in custody for up to 14 days, after which he must be charged. Counsel Nair said Anwar agreed to the new request for questioning, amid arrest under the Sodomy Act. Home Minister Syed Hamid Albar demanded that Anwar provide his DNA: "We have taken DNA (from the accuser) so we have to take Anwar's DNA also."
On July 16, 2008 Anwar was arrested by a contingent of 10 police cars (half unmarked and half-patrol) with 20 balaclava-clad masked commandos, under Section 377A of the Penal Code, outside his home on July 16, one hour before he was due to make a statement at the police HQ. Earlier, he cut short the interview at the Anti-Corruption Agency HQ to meet the deadline but the police still arrested him. Meanwhile, Malaysian authorities braced for mass protests.
According to his lawyer Sankara Nair, Anwar had agreed to meet police later during the day on a sodomy complaint lodged by a former aide, and police had warned they would arrest him if he did not show up. The police did not specify what the opposition leader was being charged with, but that he would be taken to the Kuala Lumpur police headquarters.  According to his party Anwar has been taken to hospital by the police after his arrest on sodomy allegations, and is believed to be undergoing a medical examination. 
Anwar was released without charges filed, by police bail on July 17, after overnight detention, and after recorded statement. Back home in Bukit Segambut, Kuala Lumpur (10.05 a.m.), his lawyers, R. Sivarasa and Sankara Nair, said Anwar must report to the Kuala Lumpur police headquarters on August 18.
Anwar complained he was locked-up with hardcore criminals overnight and forced to sleep on the cement floor: "It is known that I have a severe back problem and I had a major back surgery before. Lying on the cold cement floor has exacerbated the pain. It was only at 1am when Azizah (wife, Datuk Seri Dr Wan Azizah Wan Ismail) brought me a towel that I could put the towel on the floor and lie on it.I don’t deserve this. No Malaysian deserves this. Why treat me like a major criminal and public enemy? Short of torture, what else do you call it?" His family doctor had to inject him with a strong dosage of painkiller. R. Sivarasa said the police bail for Anwar's release was RM 10,000.
He had minimal medical tests only at the Hospital Kuala Lumpur and was not required to give a DNA sample.
Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, on July 20 proposed that international experts be used in the investigation against Anwar, for Koh Tsu Koon opined this would prevent falsification of DNA samples. Deputy Police chief Ismail Omar said that the police will not use the 1998 DNA sample collected from Anwar. Kuala Lumpur Hospital Director Zaininah Mohammed Zain said Anwar was not stripped naked in his medical examination. Kuala Lumpur Hospital Director Zaininah Mohammed Zain said Anwar was not stripped naked in his medical examination. Anwar however spoke of his “embarrassment at being ordered to strip naked and ‘measured’ when he was taken to the hospital”. He said: “I was stripped naked and had my private parts examined. They also measured the parts.” The circumcision scar was also measured and observed. His lawyer R. Sivarasa said that a court order to give his DNA sample was not allowed under Malaysian law.
Anwar has said that he has an alibi for "every minute" of the day when he is accused of sodomy with a former male aide. He mentioned the allegation is a set-up - a repeat of similar claims 10 years ago for which he was sacked from his post as deputy prime minister, tried and jailed. 
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi barred probe participation by Attorney General Abdul Gani Patail and Police Inspector General Musa Hasan, amid investigation by the Anti Corruption Agency (ACA) against both. But they will not be suspended.
 Sodomy Trial
Anwar Ibrahim, on August 7, 2008, pleaded not guilty to "unnatural sex" sodomy charge (defined as "carnal intercourse against the order of nature") at the Jalan Duta Court complex and released by Sessions Court Judge Komathy Suppiah on a personal bail bond of 20,000 ringgit (USD6,090). Suppiah ruled: "A man is innocent until proven guilty. I don't think there's any likelihood that Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim will abscond." The trial was set for September 10. Anwar called the accusation, a government conspiracy, and undermined his plans to run for the August 26 parliamentary by-election set by the Malaysia's Election Commission:``It is a slander, and malicious, and I am not guilty,'reformasi'."   The trial was postponed to July 8, 2009 but was delayed and adjourned to July 15 because one of Anwar's lead lawyer was taken ill.
On November 7, 2008 the judge in the Sessions court struck down the request by Malaysia's Attorney-General Tan Sri Abdul Gani Patail to transfer the case to the High Court. The reason given was that the certificate signed by the AG was invalid. The judge fixed the court date at November 10. 
Anwar Ibrahim has filed an application for the High Court to order the prosecution to provide him with all documents and evidence relevant to his latest sodomy trial. The application for the documents to the A-G’s Chambers was done in September 2008 but had yet to be delivered to the Anwar's defense team.  In a statement on June 10, 2009 Anwar accused the Public Prosecutor of purposely withholding information and denying him a fair trial. He charged that the Public Prosecutor of taking part in a political conspiracy against him and demands the sodomy charges against him be dropped immediately. On July 16, 2009 Anwar's defence team was allowed by the High Court to get extra evidence it says the prosecution is hiding in the opposition leader’s sodomy trial. The prosecution has 10 days to hand over the approved items, including closed circuit television recordings of Saiful in the condominium complex where Anwar is accused of sodomising him in June last year and medical examination notes and chemist notes.  However the High Court dismissed Anwar's application to obtain the specimen sample taken from Mohd Saiful as well as several other samples. The prosecution in Anwar’s sodomy trial has filed a notice of appeal against the court ruling on July 16 ordering it to supply the defence with certain documents and exhibits. The court on 24 July barred Anwar from obtaining evidence on sodomy charges against him, freezing an earlier decision which granted him the information.
An affidavit was filed at the Kuala Lumpur High Court on June 17, 2009 to strike out the case against Anwar, saying the Kuala Lumpur Hospital report dated July 13 last year backed another medical report by private hospital, Pusrawi which found that his former aide Saiful Bukhari Azlan was never sodomised.
 International reaction
Meanwhile former Philippine president Joseph Estrada expressed sympathies over Ibrahim's arrest. Estrada, through spokesman Margaux Salcedo, said: "Like Anwar, former President Estrada was put in prison for charges that were unjustified and untrue in order to execute a power grab in 2001. It appears that today's arrest of former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim was politically motivated. This appears to be a repeat of what they did in 1998 when they jailed Anwar for sodomy at the height of the protests against then Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad and released him six years later because he was not guilty."
The United States said that the arrest has raised serious concerns. The State Department has urged Malaysian authorities to resolve this matter in a manner that builds confidence in the impartial rule of law in Malaysia. Two US rights groups, the International Republican Institute and the National Democratic Institute also expressed concerns about the arrest and hoped the investigation into the sodomy claims was not used as a political tool to silence him. They have questioned the timing of the current allegations amid Anwar's re-emergence on the national political scene since a ban on his involvement in politics expired in April 2008. US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice reiterated the U.S. view that transparency and rule of law must be followed in Anwar's case. She said the United States had long spoken out in cases deemed to be political in nature and would continue to do so. 
Human Rights Watch's Asia director Brad Adams, on August 7, stated: "The Malaysian government appears to be manipulating the legal system to shore up support for its continued rule and undermine the opposition. This case is really about preventing challenges to the government's rule. Previous trials for sodomy and corruption, which landed him in jail for six years until 2004, raised serious concerns about judicial independence and fairness." Amnesty International also "expressed grave concern over the charges and said they appeared to be an attempt to prevent the 60-year-old opposition leader from re-entering parliament." Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, howevers assured that: "There's no conspiracy," he said, according to the New Straits Times daily. "How could I insist that he be charged? The police are not so stupid to simply charge if there is no evidence."
Former United States vice-president Al Gore accused the Malaysia government of engaging in character assassination of Anwar Ibrahim to silence an effective leader of the political opposition.  Justice Sandra Day O’Connor, a former justice of the US Supreme Court and Abdurrahman Wahid, former president of Indonesia stated their concerns about recent developments in Malaysia that seem aimed at defaming Anwar Ibrahim and threatening him with imprisonment in a manner which is reminiscent of the campaign to defame him in 1998. They stated there are plausible motives for some to manufacture a false case against him. They also mentioned that Anwar last year brought evidence to a royal commission that enabled it to conclude that there had been improper influence exerted on judicial appointments and more recently he brought forward evidence against the current attorney-general and the current inspector-general of police for the perversion of justice in his own prosecution in 1998-99.  Abdurrahman Wahid has thrown in his support behind PKR de facto leader Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim saying he believes Anwar would usher in Islamic democracy if he becomes the next Prime Minister, describing Anwar and himself as "fighters for democracy in South-East Asia." He said the recent swearing on the Quran by Anwar’s former aide Saiful Bukhari Azlan was un-Islamic. “I challenge anyone to prove the reverse. They better open the law books of Islam.” 
 Controversy regarding evidence in the sodomy case
Anwar Ibrahim demanded Tuesday 29 July, 2008 that police drop a sodomy investigation against him, producing a medical report he said showed no assault had taken place. Anwar reiterated that the allegations by a young male aide, a repeat of charges that saw him jailed a decade ago, have been fabricated to disrupt his plans to seize power from the coalition that has ruled here for half a century. Anwar maintained that The Complainant is an outright liar working hand in glove with those in power, and that the aim is to assassinate his character and attempt to derail the Malaysian people's aspirations for change in Malaysia. 
In a statutory declaration on August 1, 2008 Dr Mohamed Osman Abdul Hamid, reiterated that he stood by his findings. Dr Mohamed Osman also said he had no knowledge of how his medical examination report on Mohd Saiful was circulated to the media and Internet. Some time in early July, he was visited by an officer from the Brickfields district police's criminal division, ASP Rosmi Mat Derus, who interviewed him about the medical examination on Mohd Saiful. He said ASP Rosmi recorded the statement in in his own handwriting in Bahasa Malaysia. The following week the same officer returned with a typed statement in Bahasa Malaysia for him to read and sign. He claimed Anwar's name was never brought up during the first interview and Mohd Saiful also never confided to him about the identity of the alleged perpetrator.   On September 4, 2008, Dr Osman spoke to the public for the first time restating that there was no evidence to back the alleged sodomy of the man who was accusing Anwar Ibrahim of sodomy. "Please be assured that I had merely done my job as a doctor," Mohamed Osman told a news conference. "I am not involved in politics. I will always tell the truth." 
 Report Against Police Chief and Attorney General
Anwar began to raise the stakes in his fight with the government by lodging a police report against its police chief and top lawyer for faking evidence against him in a similar case a decade ago. Anwar claims he has proof that Inspector-General of Police Tan Sri Musa Hassan and Attorney-General Tan Sri Abdul Gani Patail concocted evidence for his corruption and sodomy trials in 1998 and 1999 which kept him imprisoned until he was freed in 2004. In retaliation Musa Hassan sued Anwar Ibrahim for alleged defamation on 21 July, demanding unspecified compensation.  On 10 October, 2008 the investigating officer of the case, Datuk Mat Zain Ibrahim stated in his affidavit that Tan Sri Abdul Gani Patail tried to hide facts from his superiors in the investigations into the "black eye" incident. In the allegations it was stated that Gani had tried to slow down investigations, even as Zain was trying to complete quickly. Mat Zain claimed that Gani was present on the 30th floor of the Federal police headquarters in Bukit Aman on Sept 20, 1998, the day Anwar was beaten by the then Inspector-General of Police, Tan Sri Abdul Rahim Noor. On Jan 6, 1999, the Attorney General chamber stated that Mat Zain's investigations were incomplete and that they could not identify who had assaulted Anwar.
Datuk Mat Zain Ibrahim, who investigated Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim’s black-eye beating in 1998, accused the country's top lawyer and police chief of fabricating evidence in the assault. He claimed there was an attempt to introduce a fake medical report prepared by a Dr Abdul Rahman Yusof from Hospital Kuala Lumpur that suggested Anwar’s injuries were self-inflicted. 
 Altantuya Murder Case
On July 3, 2008, Anwar presented allegations which claimed that the Deputy Prime Minister, Najib Abdul Razak, was involved in the Altantuya Shaariibuu murder case, and called for a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the matter. He showed a sworn statement by murder accused Abdul Razak Baginda's private investigator P. Balasubramaniam that claimed police suppressed evidence to protect some personalities, including proof that Altantuya knew Najib.. The private investigator, however, retracted his statement the following day after he was detained by the police for reasons unknown  leading to allegations that his retraction was coerced. He and his family has since gone missing leading the family members fearing for his safety to lodge a missing person's report . The police have since claimed to have initiated a manhunt for the private investigator.
Anwar Ibrahim wished Abdul Razak Baginda well after his acquittal, but questioned the manner in which the Altantuya Shaariibuu murder case was handled by the police and the prosecution. Anwar has said that there is general and growing perception that the investigation was not done professionally and that there is clear motive to cover up. He mentioned that a lot of evidence was not adduced during the trial. He also questioned the move to change the prosecution team and the presiding judge before the trial even started. The case was originally heard before Justice K.N. Segara before it was transferred to Justice Datuk Mohd Zaki Md Yassin. The prosecution team led by Salehuddin Saidin was replaced with another team led by Tun Abdul Majid Tun Hamzah. He also raised the issue about Najib's involvement, the alleged SMSes between Najib and Razak Baginda and various other evidences the public has raised previously. 
 Fabrication of Sodomy Case
Equally damaging for the prosecution’s case, Malaysia Today’s editor, Raja Petra Kamaruddin, alleged that a top police official, Senior Assistant Commissioner Mohd Rodwan Mohd Yusof had met with Saiful three days before the charges were filed in room 619 of the Concorde Hotel. He stated that Rodwan and Saiful spoke on the telephone at least eight times before Saiful went to Hospital Puswari to report the supposed rape.
 Fuel price debate
On July 6, 2008, Anwar challenged the prime minister and his deputy to debate in the reduction of petrol prices. He told a crowd of 20,000 supporters at an anti-inflation rally that the government should quit over a recent fuel price hike. The stadium was ablaze with demonstrators wearing T-shirts in red, the colour of the protest movement. The fuel price hike has heaped pressure on Abdullah after the March polls which handed the opposition its best ever result -- a third of parliamentary seats and control of five states. .
On July 15, 2008, Anwar participated in a live televised debate with Information Minister Datuk Ahmad Shabery Cheek entitled "Today We Form the Government, Tomorrow the Fuel Prices Will Go Down". The event was organised by online news portal Agenda Daily and was broadcast live over TV9, Astro Awani and Bernama TV. Anwar said it would only cost the Government RM5bil to bring down fuel prices by 50 sen and continued saying that RM2 billion could be saved by reducing the country’s electricity buffer of 40% to 20%, as the extra capacity only benefited independent power producers (IPP).
Anwar further hit out at the recent increase in fuel prices, saying such drastic measures within a short period had pushed inflation up which is detrimental to the economy and places an unnecessary burden on the people. He said that fuel prices could be reduced if waste from corruption and inefficiency was eliminated.  The Minister hit back with several personal attacks on Anwar's character, including incidents which occurred during Anwar's time in office.
 Chin Peng
Anwar Ibrahim who is PKR adviser has voiced support to allow the former leader of the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM) to be allowed to return to Malaysia. His remark have been slam by UMNO leader who range from regrettable  to accusation as a plot to gain support of the Chinese community.
 Publications and speeches
Anwar giving a speech in 2005.Articles
"Radical Islam in Southeast Asia" (password required) Far Eastern Economic Review, November 2006, 60th Anniversary Issue. Published in Arabic  and in al-Bayane al-Youm (Morocco) on January 1, 2007.
"Accountability and the Future of Freedom" Islamica Magazine, Issue #16, Winter 2006.
"Universal Values and Muslim Democracy" Journal of Democracy, July 2005. Published in Arabic  
"Political Accountability and the Moral Imperative" Accountability Forum, Issue 7, Fall 2005
"On Shah Wali Allah's Socio-Political Thought and Ibn Hazm's Kitab al-Fasl fi al-Milal wa al-Ahwa' wa al-Nihal." In Islamic Studies, Vol. 43, No. 2, 371-377.
"The Quest for Social Justice" Global Agenda Magazine, January 2005
"A Test for the West in Turkey" Washington Post, July 6, 2007, A15. Published in Arabic 
"Seeing the Bigger Picture" Accountability21 December 22, 2006. Published in Arabic  
"Malaysian Mudslinging" Wall Street Journal, October 3, 2006
"Cultivating the Seeds of Democracy" Los Angeles Times, March 25, 2006
"Whither East Asia" Wall Street Journal, December 15, 2005
"Destructive Engagement" Asian Wall Street Journal, June 15, 2005 
"Democratic Contagion Hits ASEAN Countries" New Perspectives Quarterly, Spring 2005
"A passion for freedom" The World in 2004, The Economist
"Who Hijacked Islam?" Time October 8, 2001
"The Central Role of Governance and Accountability in Achieving Development Goals in the 21st Century" Inter-American Development Bank Forum on the Americas, December 7, 2006, Washington DC.
“The Challenges of Islam and Democracy” University of Chicago, November 8, 2006.
"Democracy and the Muslim World" Stanford University, October 11, 2006.
"Democracy, Human Rights, and the Destiny of Southeast Asia" Severyns-Ravenholt Lecture at the University of Washington, October 10, 2006
"Islam & Democracy" Center for Democratic Institutions Annual Address, Canberra, Australia, July 20, 2006.
"Between Tyranny and Freedom: A Brief Voyage with the Bard" World Shakespeare Congress, Brisbane, Australia, July 19, 2006 
"Accountability and the Future of Freedom" Presidential Fellows Lecture at the World Bank in Washington DC June 19, 2006
"Islam and Democracy" Keynote address at World Movement for Democracy Fourth Assembly, Istanbul, Turkey, April 2, 2006
"Freedom or Sharia" Columbia University, January 30, 2006
"The Future of Muslim Democracy" December 1, 2005
"Examining the Challenges of Islam and Democracy" Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, November 7, 2005
"The United States and the Muslim World" Asia Society Keynote Address delivered at SAIS in Washington DC, April 18, 2005
"Between Force and Persuasion" Keynote Address at Inaugural Session of the Conference "Inter-Civilisational Dialogue in a Globalising World", New Delhi, India, April 8, 2005
Anwar Ibrahim's speeches from 1990s posted at the The Institute for Policy Research
UNESCO General Council On the occasion of Anwar Ibrahim's election to the presidency of the 25th Session, Paris, October 17, 1989
 Media and news
"A Talk with Malaysia's Anwar Ibrahim" BusinessWeek, April 10, 2007.
"Anwar’s ‘new’ agenda" The Star, April 8, 2007.
"Malaysian Pledges to Defy Ban on His Return to Politics" Washington Post, Page A14, April 5, 2007.
"Anwar Ibrahim: An Optimist of Freedom and Democracy" The Jakarta Post, January 31, 2007.
"Islam and Democracy" A discussion with Saad el-Din Ibrahim" "One-on-One" hosted by Riz Khan, Al-Jazeera English, November 30, 2006
Bloomberg News Interview with Kathleen Hayes Bloomberg TV, November 29, 2006 "(Print article)"
"Saying no to corruption" Fortune Magazine, October 23, 2006
"Anwar returns: the public reinvention of Malaysia's former deputy PM" Radio Free Australia, July 24, 2006
"Anwar bin Ibrahim's political rollercoaster" Worldview Magazine, Summer 2006
"Islam in Southeast Asia" Interview by Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, April 7, 2006
Foreign Exchange interview hosted by Fareed Zakaria (Scroll to middle of page for transcript) November 4, 2005
Interview with Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty From the "Forum 2000" Meeting in Prague, October 11, 2005
"HardTALK" with Stephen Sackur, 2005
"Democracy for Muslims?" The Stanford Daily, October 12, 2006
"Anwar's return" The Economist, August 24, 2006
"An ode to democracy delivered by Anwar Ibrahim" UQ News Online, July 27, 2006
"Anwar Ibrahim a possible candidate for UN Secretary-General" ABC News, July 19, 2006
"Anwar Ibrahim on comeback trail" Al-Jazeera English, March 16, 2006
"Voice of moderate Islam wins support" The Sunday Times, October 2, 2005
"Anwar Ibrahim asked to apply for top UN job" Sydney Morning Herald June 28, 2006
"An Unlikely but Eager Voice Between Islam and the West" Washington Post September 2, 2005
Asean News Network 22 September 2004 Malaysia's Ruling Party Members Urged to Shun Anwar Ibrahim.
"Anwar Ibrahim free at last" Economist.com Global Agenda Magazine, September 7, 2004
"Anwar Ibrahim's long shadow" The Economist, April 3, 2003
 Notes and references
^ Ian Stewart, The Mahathir Legacy: A Nation Divided, a Region at Risk, Allen & Unwin, 2003, p 22-24 :"(Anwar) used ... large cash payments to win enough support to secure the position of UMNO deputy president and replace veteran leader Ghafar Baba as deputy prime minister.... Anwar used the payment and patronage system to his advantage.... Anwar's followers - as witnessed by myself and other journalists- were handing out packets of money to acquire support of UMNO division leaders in his 1993 campaign against Ghafar Baba... They were not only working for Anwar but under his instructions."
^ Tamadun magazine, July 1998: http://www.angelfire.com/emo/doaanwar/tamadun.html
^ http://www.nytimes.com/1998/12/06/business/he-s-seen-the-enemy-it-looks-like-him.html?scp=5&sq=george soros public enemy&st=cse&pagewanted=1
^ Statutory Declaration from Dr. Munawar Ahmad Anees (part 1) Dec 3, 1998
^ Dr. Munawar fails in bid to remit appeal to High Court October 29, 2008
^ Aliran (1999-03-01). "Rahim Noor's Confession: Black Eye and Blacker Deeds" (HTML). Press release. http://www.aliran.com/oldsite/ms990301.html. Retrieved 2008-08-30.
^ Democratic Action Party (2005-08-04). "Anwar vindicated but Attorney-General should give full accounting of the compensation government is paying for Rahim Noor’s “black-eye” assault" (HTML). Press release. http://www.dapmalaysia.org/all-archive/English/2005/Aug05/lks/lks3607.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-30.
^ "Anwar wins apology for beating". BBC News (British Broadcasting Corporation). 2005-08-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/asia-pacific/4740937.stm. Retrieved 2008-09-07.
^ a b "A Stain Upon Anwar's Defense", Alvin Ung, The Associated Press, CBSNews.com, 1998-12-30, web: CBS-489.
^ Anwar trial hears DNA evidence Dec 30, 1998, BBC News
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^ ap.google.com, Malaysia's Anwar wins seat in parliament
^ Malaysia's Anwar to be sworn in Thursday
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^ reuters.com, NEWSMAKER - Malaysia Anwar sworn in, ends political exile
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^ "DEWAN DISPATCHES: Anwar Ibrahim’s obsession with Najib the ‘Dictator’ may be good for the nation". New Straits Times. 2008-11-12. http://www.nst.com.my/Misc/Parliament/dispatch/story/20081112222733/Article/index1_html. Retrieved 2008-11-13.
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^ "Chua Jui Meng quits MCA, joins PKR (Update)". TheStar Online. 2009-07-18. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2009/7/18/nation/20090718163926&sec=nation.
^ "MCA’s Jui Meng jumps to PKR". Malaysian Insider. 2009-07-18. http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/index.php/malaysia/32660-mcas-jui-meng-jumps-to-pkr.
^ "Dewan Rakyat: Ex-Kedah MB bribed PKR rep, alleges Anwar". The Straits Times. 2009-02-20. http://www.nst.com.my/Current_News/NST/Friday/National/2484842/Article/index_html.
^ "Anwar’s tale of bullets, “kidnappings” and a CCTV tape". The Malaysian Insider. 2009-02-20. http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/index.php/malaysia/18753-anwars-tale-of-bullets-kidnappings-and-a-cctv-tape. Retrieved 2009-02-20.
^ "PR reps got death threats". The Nut Graph. 2009-02-19. http://thenutgraph.com/article-2221.html. Retrieved 2009-02-19.
^ "Anwar tells how Umno-BN tried to entice defections in Kedah, slams police inaction". Malaysia Today. 2009-02-20. http://mt.m2day.org/2008/content/view/18323/84/. Retrieved 2009-02-20.
^ "Aide alleges sodomy: Report lodged". Malaysiakini (Mkini Dotcom Sdn Bhd). 2008-06-28. http://www.malaysiakini.com/news/85246. Retrieved 2008-06-28.
^ a b file=/2008/6/30/nation/20080630150522&sec=nation
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^ uk.reuters.com, Malaysia's Anwar says to leave embassy soon
^ gmanews.tv, Anwar files suit to clear name of sodomy raps
^ BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Anwar quits Turkey embassy refuge
^ ap.google.com, Malaysia's Anwar vows to seize power
^ straitstimes.com, M'sian police classify sexual assault report against Anwar as sodomy
^ www.straitstimes.com, Anwar accuser a 'genuine guy', say varsity friends
^ nst.com.my, Anwar to embark on nationwide roadshow to defend himself against sodomy allegations
^ abs-cbnnews.com, Anwar's accuser under Malaysian police protection
^ BBC News, Anwar challenges sodomy accuser
^ TheEdgeDaily, ‘Sumpah’ by Saiful meant for adultery cases, says imam
^ Malaysia Insider, Anwar campaign undermines Saiful’s Quran oath
^ "Malaysia's Anwar fights bid to move sodomy case to High Court". AFP (Yahoo! News). 2008-09-10. http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20080910/wl_asia_afp/malaysiapoliticsopposition_080910060327. Retrieved 2008-09-10.
^ "Malaysia's Anwar challenges bid to transfer sodomy case to High Court". ChannelNewsAsia (ChannelNewsAsia). 2008-09-10. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/southeastasia/view/375027/1/.html. Retrieved 2008-09-10.
^ "Anwar to know on Oct 7 (Update 4)". The Star Online. 2008-09-24. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/9/24/nation/20080924090000&sec=nation. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
^ ap.google.com, Malaysia arrest warrant issued for Anwar
^ in.reuters.com, Malaysia police may arrest Anwar, govt asks for DNA
^ nst.com.my, POLICE CHIEF: Anwar’s arrest followed legal process
^ timesonline.co.uk, Malaysia braced for riots after sodomy arrest of Anwar Ibrahim, opposition leader
^ "Malaysian opposition leader Anwar arrested: lawyer". AFP (Yahoo News). 2008-07-17. http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20080716/wl_afp/malaysiapoliticsanwararrest_080716053946. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
^ "Malaysia's Anwar taken to hospital: party". AFP (Yahoo News). 2008-07-17. http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20080716/ts_afp/malaysiapoliticsanwarhospital_080716130409. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
^ thestar.com.my, Anwar released on police bail
^ indiatimes.com, Malaysian opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim released on bail
^ thestar.com.my, Show us the report, says Anwar
^ news.asiaone.com, Anwar's conditions for DNA testing
^ thestar.com, Only minimal medical test done on Anwar, says lawyer
^ thestar.com.my, Foreign experts in Anwar case required, says Gerakan
^ bernama.com.my, bernama.com.my/bernama, MP suggests use of independent prosecutors
^ thaindian.com, Malaysian PM bars top officials from probing Ibrahim
^ "Malaysian Anwar in 'sodomy alibi'". BBC (BBC News). 2008-07-18. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7513963.stm. Retrieved 2008-07-18.
^ afp.google.com, Malaysia police chief, AG barred from Anwar probe:PM
^ thestar.com.my/news, Anwar not made to strip naked, says HKL director
^ bloomberg.com, Malaysia's Anwar Pleads Not Guilty to Sex Charge
^ "Malaysia's Anwar charged with sodomy". CNN (CNN). 2008-08-07. http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/08/07/malaysia.anwar/index.html?section=cnn_latest. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
^ "Anwar: Innocent of Sodomy Charge". Time (Time.com). 2008-08-07. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1830137,00.html?xid=rss-topstories. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
^ "Court adjourns Sodomy II trial to July 15". Malaysian Insider. 2009-07-08. http://malaysianinsider.com/index.php/malaysia/31682-court-adjourns-sodomy-ii-trial-to-july-15. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
^ "No transfer for Anwar's sodomy case". Jane Ritikos (TheStar Online). 2008-11-07. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/11/7/nation/20081107154313&sec=nation. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
^ "Malaysia's Anwar scores victory in wrangle over sodomy trial". ChannelNewsAsia. 2008-11-07. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/388349/1/.html. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
^ "Anwar wants all documents related to latest sodomy trial". TheStar Online. 2009-06-11. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2009/6/11/courts/4094464&sec=courts. Retrieved 2009-06-11.
^ "Anwar accuses Public Prosecutor of ‘political persecution’". Malaysian Insider. 2009-06-11. http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/index.php/malaysia/29165-anwar-accuses-public-prosecutor-of-political-persecution. Retrieved 2009-06-11.
^ "Anwar gets extra proof, prosecutors to appeal". Malaysian Insider. 2009-07-17. http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/index.php/malaysia/32451-anwar-gets-extra-proof-prosecutors-to-appeal. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
^ "Anwar gets documents but not Saiful's specimen samples". The Nut Graph. 2009-07-16. http://thenutgraph.com/article-4463.html. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
^ "Sodomy 2: Prosecution to appeal against court order". TheStar Online. 2009-07-17. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2009/7/17/nation/20090717181137&sec=nation. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
^ "Malaysian court halts evidence handover in Anwar case". ChannelNewsAsia. 2009-07-24. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/444501/1/.html. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
^ "HKL report says Saiful was never sodomised". Malaysian Insider. 2009-06-18. http://themalaysianinsider.com/index.php/malaysia/29886-hkl-report-says-saiful-was-never-sodomised. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
^ abs-cbnnews.com, Erap feels for friend Anwar
^ Channelnewsasia, US voices "serious concerns" over Anwar's arrest
^ Channelnewsasia, Rice says will continue to speak out on Anwar
^ afp.google.com,Malaysian opposition leader Anwar charged with sodomy
^ FOREIGN MINISTRY TO HOLD INFORMATION SESSIONS ABROAD
^ To defend Anwar is to defend Malaysian democracy
^ on Quran 'un-Islamic', says Gus Dur
^ Dur: Swearing on Quran is un-Islamic
^ "Malaysia's Anwar says medical report makes lie of sodomy charges". AFP (Yahoo News). 2008-07-29. http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20080729/wl_afp/malaysiapoliticsanwar_080729073325. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
^ "Malaysia's Anwar says medical report makes lie of sodomy charges". TodayOnline (MediaCorp). 2008-07-29. http://www.todayonline.com/articles/267671.asp. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
^ "Doc who examined Saiful stands by his report". TheStar Online (TheStar). 2008-08-07. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/8/7/nation/20080807150623&sec=nation. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
^ "Anwar’s Sodomy Charge Complicates Political Struggle". Jed Yoong (Asia Sentinel). 2008-08-07. http://www.asiasentinel.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1374&Itemid=31. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
^ "Malaysia: Anwar accuser not raped, says doctor". Associated Press (Yahoo! News). 2008-09-05. http://ph.news.yahoo.com/ap/20080904/tap-as-malaysia-anwar-b3c65ae.html. Retrieved 2008-09-05.
^ "Anwar ups ante with police report against IGP, A-G". Malaysian Insider (Malaysia Today). 2008-07-01. http://www.malaysia-today.net/2008/content/view/9431/. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
^ "Malaysia's police chief sues opposition leader Anwar for alleged defamation". Associated Press (Yahoo! News). 2008-07-21. http://malaysia.news.yahoo.com/ap/20080721/tap-as-malaysia-anwar-b3c65ae.html. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
^ "Anwar Sodomy Trial: Mat Zain alleges Gani hid 'black eye' facts from superiors". NST (News Straits Times). 2008-10-10. http://www.nst.com.my/Current_News/NST/Friday/National/2371048/Article/index_html. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
^ "Ex-cop implicates Abdul Gani, Musa in Anwar black-eye case, clears Dr M". Malaysian Insider. 2009-05-29. http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/index.php/malaysia/27923-ex-cop-implicates-abdul-gani-musa-in-anwar-black-eye-case-clears-dr-m. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
^ "Anwar alleges Najib linked to Altantuya case". Malaysian Insider (Malaysian Insider). 2008-07-03. http://themalaysianinsider.com/index.php/home/42-lead-stories/1348-anwar-alleges-najib-linked-to-altantuya-case. Retrieved 2008-07-03.
^ "PI retracts stunning statutory declaration". Malaysiakini (Mkini Dotcom Sdn. Bhd.). 2008-07-04. http://www.malaysiakini.com/news/85552. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
^ "Which Mr Bala should we believe". The Electric New Paper (Singapore Press Holdings Ltd). 2008-07-06. http://newpaper.asia1.com.sg/news/story/0,4136,170010,00.html. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
^ "New twist in MP intrigue". Herald Sun (The Herald and Weekly Times Pty Ltd). 2008-07-07. http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,23979671-5012747,00.html. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
^ "Malaysian police on global manhunt for investigator who stirred politics with sex claim". International Herald Tribune (The New York Times Company). 2008-07-06. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/07/06/asia/AS-Malaysia-Mongolian-Murder.php. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
^ "Anwar wishes Razak well, but alleges cover-up". The Malaysian Insider (The Malaysian Insider). 2008-10-31. http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/index.php/malaysia/11516-anwar-wishes-razak-well-but-alleges-cover-up. Retrieved 2008-10-31.
^ "More controversy ahead". The Straits Times (The Straits Times). 2008-11-01. http://www.straitstimes.com/Breaking%2BNews/SE%2BAsia/Story/STIStory_297246.html. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
^ "Malaysian police on global manhunt for investigator who stirred politics with sex claim". Asia Sentinel (Asia Sentinel). 2008-08-11. http://asiasentinel.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1381&Itemid=35. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
^ Anwar challenges PM and DPM to debate on fuel prices. The Star Online. 2008-07-06.
^ "Anwar's opposition holds rally as Malaysian turmoil deepens". AFP (Yahoo News). 2008-07-06. http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20080706/wl_asia_afp/malaysiainflationenergyprotestanwar_080706160515. Retrieved 2008-07-06.
^ "Anwar and Shabery trade facts, pot shots". AFP (The Star Newspaper). 2008-07-16. http://www.thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/7/16/nation/21836068&sec=nation. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
^ "Live debate: Shabery stands his ground against Anwar". NST (News Straits Times). 2008-07-16. http://www.nst.com.my/Current_News/NST/Wednesday/National/2295015/Article/index_html. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
^ "Malaysian opposition leader vows to cut fuel prices in unprecedented debate with govt minister". AFP (Yahoo News). 2008-07-16. http://malaysia.news.yahoo.com/ap/20080716/tap-as-malaysia-fuel-debate-2nd-ld-write-b3c65ae.html. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
^ Let Chin Peng return says Anwar - MySinchew 2009.06.13
^ Anwar’s stand on Chin Peng regrettable, says Hisham
^ 'Defending Chin Peng is Anwar's ploy'
^ Articles at Misbahalhuriyya.org
^ "جريدة الغد". Alghad.jo. http://www.alghad.jo/?article=5824. Retrieved 2009-05-11.
^ الإسلام الراديكالي في جنوب شرق آسيا
^ Articles at Almadapaper.com
^ Middle East news information at Albawaba.com
^ Article at Alwasatnews.com
^ Middle East news information at Albawaba.com
^ Articles at Aaramnews.com
^ Articles at Bayanealyaoume.ma
^ Articles at Alraialaam.com
^ موقع نيوز يمن الإخباري
^ Articles at Ikhwansyria.com
^ Articles at Sudanile.com
^ موقع نيوز يمن الإخباري
^ Articles at Alwasatnews.com
^ Articles at Alraialaam.com
^ جريدة الغد
^ Articles at Alawan.com
^ Articles at Aaramnews.com
^ Middle East news information at Albawaba.com
^ Articles at Aaramnews.com
^ Articles at Alwasatnews.com
^ موقع نيوز يمن الإخباري
^ Burmanet — Asian Wall Street Journal: Destructive Engagement - Anwar Ibrahim
^ "Between Tyranny and Freedom: A Brief Voyage with the Bard". Uq.edu.au. http://omc.uq.edu.au/audio/news/UQ-Anwar-Transcript.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-11.
 Other references
Kamarudin, Raja Petra (2005-11-07). "The stuff politicians are made of". Malaysia Today. http://www.malaysia-today.net/MMblues/2005/11/stuff-politicians-are-made-of.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
Kamarudin, Raja Petra (2005-11-09). "The Anwar Factor". Malaysia Today. http://www.malaysia-today.net/loonyMY/2005/11/anwar-factor.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
Yeoh, Oon (2005-12-06). "The return of Anwar Ibrahim". Malaysia Today. http://www.malaysia-today.net/Blog-e/2005/12/return-of-anwar-ibrahim.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
Shari, Izatun (2008-06-30). "Najib denies involvement in Anwar sodomy allegation". The Star. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/6/30/nation/20080630150522&sec=nation. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
"Anwar challenges PM and DPM to debate on fuel prices". The Star. 2008-06-06. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/7/6/nation/20080706233209&sec=nation. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
 External links
Profile: Anwar Ibrahim
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Anwar Ibrahim
Wikinews has related news: Anwar's lawsuit over gay slur by former Malaysian premier is dismissed
 Home pages
Anwar Ibrahim Home Page
 Affiliations and appointments
Senior Fellow in the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University,Washington D.C.
International Advisory Board, International Crisis Group
Honorary President, AccountAbility
Ghafar Baba Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia
1993 – 1998 Succeeded by
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Wan Azizah Wan Ismail Leader of the Opposition of Malaysia
2008 – present Incumbent
Zabidi Ali Member of Parliament for Permatang Pauh
1988 – 1999 Succeeded by
Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Wan Azizah Wan Ismail Member of Parliament for Permatang Pauh
2008 – present Incumbent
Party political offices
Wan Azizah Wan Ismail Leader of the People's Pact
2008 – present Incumbent