12 Februari, 2010

[hang nadim] الجمهورية اليمنية Republic of Yemen (Al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah)

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Republic of Yemen
الجمهورية اليمنية
Al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah

Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Allah, al-Watan, at-Thawra, al-Wehda"
"God, Nation, Revolution, Unity"
Anthem: United Republic

(and largest city) Sana‘a
15°21′N 44°12′E / 15.35°N 44.2°E / 15.35; 44.2
Official language(s) Arabic
Demonym Yemeni, Yemenite
Government Republic
- President of Yemen Ali Abdullah Saleh (GPC)
- Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-HADI[1] (GPC)
- Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Mujur (GPC)
- Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Affairs Abdulkarim Ismail Al-Arhabi
- North Yemen independence from the Ottoman Empire November 1, 1918
- South Yemen independence from the United Kingdom November 30, 1967
- Unification May 22, 1990
- Total 527,968 km2 (49th)
203,849 sq mi
- Water (%) negligible
- 2009 estimate 23,580,000[2] (51st)
- July 2007 census 22,230,531
- Density 44.7/km2 (160th)
115.7/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
- Total $55.393 billion[3]
- Per capita $2,410[3]
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
- Total $26.909 billion[3]
- Per capita $1,171[3]
HDI (2007) ▲ 0.575[4] (medium) (140)
Currency Yemeni rial (YER)
Time zone (UTC+3)
Drives on the right[5]
Internet TLD .ye
Calling code 967
Yemen (Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman), officially the Republic of Yemen (Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya al-Yamaniyya) is a country located on the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia. It has an estimated population of more than 23 million people and is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Aden to the south, and Oman to the east.

Yemen is just under 530,000 km2 in land area. Its territory includes over 200 islands, the largest of which is Socotra, about 415 kilometres (259 miles) to the south of mainland Yemen, off the coast of Somalia. Yemen is the only republic on the Arabian Peninsula, and one of eight in the Arab World. Its capital is Sana'a. Between 2000 and 2006, 17.5% of the population lived on less than US$ 1.25 per day.
Main article: History of Yemen
Between 2200 BC and the 6th century AD, Yemen was part of the Sabaean, Awsanian, Minaean, Qatabanian, Hadhramawtian, Himyarite, and several other kingdoms, which controlled the lucrative spice trade. It was known to the ancient Romans as Arabia Felix ("Happy Arabia") because of the riches its trade generated. Augustus attempted to annex it, but the expedition failed.

In the third century and again in the early seventh century, many Sabaean and Himyarite people migrated out of the land of Yemen to North Africa and the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula following the destruction of the Ma'rib Dam (sadd Ma'rib). In the 7th century, Islamic caliphs began to exert control over the area. After the caliphate broke up, the former North Yemen came under the control of imams of various dynasties, usually of the Zaidi sect, who established a theocratic political structure that survived until modern times.

Egyptian Sunni caliphs occupied much of North Yemen throughout the eleventh century. By the sixteenth century and again in the nineteenth century, North Yemen was part of the Ottoman Empire, and during several periods its imams exerted control over South Yemen.

In 1839, the British occupied the port of Aden and established it as a colony in September of that year. They also set up a zone of loose alliances (known as protectorates) around Aden to act as a protective buffer. North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1918 and became a republic in 1962.

In 1967, the British withdrew from Aden. After the British withdrawal, the former Aden became known as South Yemen. The two Yemeni countries were formally united as the Republic of Yemen on 22 May 1990.
Main article: Politics of Yemen
Yemen (Yaman) is a Presidential republic with a bicameral legislature. Under the constitution, an elected president, an elected 301-seat House of Representatives, and an appointed 111-member Shura Council share power. The president is the head of state, and the prime minister is the head of the government.

The constitution provides that the president be elected by popular vote from at least two candidates endorsed by at least fifteen members of the Parliament. The prime minister, in turn, is appointed by the president and must be approved by two thirds of the Parliament. The presidential term of office is seven years, and the parliamentary term of elected office is six years. Suffrage is universal for people age 18 and older but only Muslims may hold elected office.[7]

President Ali Abdullah Saleh became the first elected President in reunified Yemen in 1999 (though he had been President of unified Yemen since 1990 and President of North Yemen since 1978). He was re-elected to office in September 2006. Although he stated his reluctance to run again, popular demonstrations and editorials offering support in major newspapers helped persuade him to run.[citation needed] Saleh's victory was marked by an election that international observers judged to be "partly free", though the election was accompanied by some violence, violations of press freedoms and allegations of fraud by the opposition.[8]

Parliamentary elections were held in April 2003, and the General People's Congress (GPC) maintained an absolute majority. There was a marked decrease from previous years in election-related violence.[citation needed]

The constitution calls for an independent judiciary. The former northern and southern legal codes have been unified. The legal system includes separate commercial courts and a Supreme Court based in Sana'a. Since the country is a Muslim state, Sharia is the main source of laws. Indeed, many court cases are debated according to the religious basis of law, and many judges are religious scholars as well as legal authorities. Unlike Saudi Arabia and other Islamic states, however, consumption of alcohol by non-Muslims is tolerated.[citation needed]

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