02 Ogos, 2010

[ hang nadim] Afghanistan Oh Afghanistan.......

The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a landlocked country in south-central Asia.[4] It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the far northeast. In addition; India claims a border with Afghanistan at the Wakhan corridor as part of its claim on the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Kashmir currently controlled by Pakistan.[5][6]
The territories now comprising Afghanistan have been an ancient focal point of the Silk Road and human migration.[7] The land is at an important geostrategic location, connecting East, South, West and Central Asia,[8] and has been home to various peoples through the ages. The region has been a target of various invaders since antiquity, including by Alexander the Great, the Mauryan Empire, Muslim armies, and Genghis Khan, and has served as a source from which many kingdoms, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Timurids, and many others have risen to form empires of their own.[9]
The political history of Afghanistan begins in the 18th century with the rise of the Pashtun tribes (known as Afghans in Persian), when in 1709 the Hotaki dynasty established its rule in Kandahar and, more specifically, when Ahmad Shah Durrani created the Durrani Empire in 1747 which became the forerunner of modern Afghanistan.[10][11][12] Its capital was shifted in 1776 from Kandahar to Kabul and most of its territories ceded to neighboring empires by 1893. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in "The Great Game" between the British and Russian empires.[13] On August 19, 1919, following the third Anglo-Afghan war, the country regained independence from the United Kingdom over its foreign affairs.
Since the late 1970s Afghanistan has experienced a continuous state of civil war punctuated by foreign occupations in the forms of the 1979 Soviet invasion and the October 2001 US-led invasion that overthrew the Taliban government. In December 2001, the United Nations Security Council authorized the creation of an International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to help maintain security and assist the Karzai administration. The country is being rebuilt slowly with support from the international community and dealing with a strong Taliban insurgency.[14]

Published: Monday August 2, 2010 MYT 4:02:00 PM
Updated: Monday August 2, 2010 MYT 4:04:33 PM
Escaped Afghan detainees: Muhyiddin wants stern action

PUTRAJAYA: Deputy Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin wants stern action against those responsible, following the escape early Sunday of 20 Afghan nationals being detained at the KL International Airport (KLIA) Immigrant Detention Depot.

The Deputy Prime Minister said a committee had been formed to investigate whether the matter involved a syndicate.

"Such a case has happened twice. Certainly, something is not right. We don't want the matter to recur," he said after chairing a meeting of the Cabinet Committee on Foreign Workers and Illegal Immigrants, here Monday.

In the 3am incident, the detainees, aged between 25 and 40, were suspected of cutting the grills of the two gates before escaping.

Earlier, on April 27, 12 Afghanistan and four Myanmar nationals, aged between 22 and 48, escaped via the opening on the grills, which were cut, before escaping by climbing over the perimeter fence of the same detention centre. - Bernama

Sunday August 1, 2010
Obama: Goals in Afghanistan attainable,
modest By Caren Bohan and Phil Stewart
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - U.S. President Barack Obama, facing public doubts about his ability to turn the tide in the unpopular Afghanistan war, said on Sunday his goals there are both modest and attainable.

U.S. President Barack Obama in the Rose Garden of the White House in Washington, June 23, 2010. U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates listens on right. Obama, facing public doubts about his ability to turn the tide in the unpopular Afghanistan war, said on Sunday his goals there are both modest and attainable. (REUTERS/Larry Downing)
Obama administration officials are struggling to measure success in the nine-year-old war ahead of a December strategy review. The president and other officials have been emphasizing that their aim is fighting al Qaeda, not building a U.S.-style democracy.

"Nobody thinks that Afghanistan is going to be a model Jeffersonian democracy," Obama told CBS News in an interview that was taped on Friday and aired on Sunday.

"What we're looking to do is difficult but it's a fairly modest goal, which is: Don't allow terrorists to operate from this region. Don't allow them to create big training camps and to plan attacks on the U.S. homeland with impunity. That can be accomplished."

The release of thousands of classified documents by the website WikiLeaks has helped to fan doubts about the war. July was the deadliest month for U.S. forces since the conflict started in 2001.

U.S. officials have played down revelations in the WikiLeaks documents, which painted a grim picture of the U.S.-led war and raised new doubts about key ally Pakistan.

But at the same time, Obama administration officials said the release of military secrets could cost lives and damage trust of allies by exposing U.S. intelligence gathering methods and names of Afghan contacts.

As investigators broadened their probe of the leak, Defense Secretary Robert Gates said WikiLeaks was at least morally guilty over the release.

Obama announced in December an additional 30,000 troops to fight the war. He also said he intended to start pulling out U.S. troops from Afghanistan in July 2011 as long as the right conditions existed.

War weariness has become especially acute among many in Obama's Democratic Party.

Last week, the U.S. Congress approved funds to pay for the Afghanistan troop increase but the measure garnered the support of more Republicans than Democrats.


In an interview on ABC's "This Week" program, Nancy Pelosi, the top Democrat in the U.S. House of Representatives, appeared reluctant to say whether she thought the Afghanistan war was worth fighting.

"We will see the metrics as they unfold in the next few months and certainly by the end of this year," the House speaker said.

But Pelosi echoed Obama in saying fighting al Qaeda was the top goal.

"We're in Afghanistan because it's in our strategic national interests to be so for our own national security, to stop terrorism, to increase global security," she said.

Asked about the July 2011 date to begin pulling U.S. troops out, Pelosi said she hoped there would be a withdrawal of more than just a couple of thousand troops.

Senator Lindsey Graham acknowledged that more troops might be needed in Afghanistan to keep the enemy "on the run," but said signs of progress must be evident.

"If, by December, we're not showing some progress, we're in trouble," Graham said on CNN's "State of the Union." "And the question is, what is progress? Without some benchmarks and measurements, it's going to be hard to sell the American people a continued involvement in Afghanistan."

On the same ABC show, Gates voiced frustration at critics who say the United States lacks a plan to win the war, despite Obama's lengthy review last year that ended with the decision for a troop increase.

The objective, Gates said, was to reverse the momentum of Taliban insurgents, deny them access to towns and cities and ramp up Afghan security forces so they can defend themselves and prevent al Qaeda from returning to the country.

"I think that the president's strategy is really quite clear," Gates said.

"If I didn't think it was important for our national security to finish the job in Afghanistan, then I would pull them all out today because I have to sign letters to these family members when a loved one is lost," Obama told CBS.

Gates said that in the WikiLeaks case there were "two areas of culpability."

"One is legal culpability," he said. "... There's also a moral culpability. And that's where I think the verdict is 'guilty' on WikiLeaks. They have put this out without any regard whatsoever for the consequences."

The U.S. investigation is focusing on Bradley Manning, who worked as an Army intelligence analyst in Iraq, U.S. officials say. Manning is already under arrest and charged with leaking a classified video showing a 2007 helicopter attack that killed a dozen people in Iraq, including two Reuters journalists.

Adrian Lamo, who reported Manning to authorities this year after receiving what appeared to be incriminating messages from him, told Reuters he believed U.S. investigators were also looking at people close to Manning with ties to WikiLeaks.

(Additional reporting by Sue Pleming, writing by Caren Bohan and Phil Stewart; editing by Eric Beech)

Copyright © 2010 Reuters

Orang awam korban Perang Afghanistan

Pengendalian perang Afghanistan terdedah kepada satu dimensi baru apabila rahsia-rahsia peperangan itu yang kini memasuki 10 tahun didedahkan melalui 9,000 dokumen-dokumen rahsia yang di siarkan di laman maya Wikileak dan akhbar New York Times (AS), The Guardian (UK) dan Der Speigal (Germany).

Pendedahan dokumen-dokumen rahsia tentang pengendalian perang sejak 2001 itu mendedahkan bagaimana peperangan itu dikendalikan yang mempamerkan pelbagai perkara yang selama ini tidak diketahui umum.

Cara peperangan itu dikendalikan membolehkan mereka yang terlibat patut dihadapkan ke mahkamah antarabangsa kerana melakukan jenayah terhadap kemanusiaan. Pemimpin-pemimpin AS dan sekutu baratnya yang memulakan peperangan wajar dihadapkan ke mahkamah dunia di Belanda.

Dokumen-dokumen itu memperincikan pengendalian perang selama hampir satu dekad itu menyalahi pengendalian perang mengikut undang-undang antarabangsa dan Konvensyen Geneva. Ia melanggari norma-norma yang terkandung dalam peperangan yang perlu dihormati oleh mereka yang terlibat dalam peperangan.

Perincian di dalam dokumen itu mendedahkan wujudnya apa yang dinamakan pasukan khas 313 yang mempunyai fungsi khusus menghapuskan musuh dan apa juga halangan di hadapannya. Selalunya pasukan khas bertindak sebagai skuad pembunuh.

Dokumen-dokumen itu juga menyebut bahawa angka kematian orang awam yang sebenarnya adalah lebih tinggi dari angka yang disebarkan kepada umum. Ada kematian orang awam yang tidak dilaporkan.

Beberapa pendedahan awal ini sangat kritikal terhadap perang Afghanistan itu sendiri yang dimulakan oleh George W.Bush dengan menumbangkan pemerintahan Taliban dan kemudiannya secara unilateral menakluki dan menjajah bumi Iraq dengan menumbangkan regim Saddam Hussien.

Dokumen rahsia itu dalam jumlah yang banyak dan tentulah lebih banyak perkara-perkara yang memeranjatkan akan terdedah nanti apabila ia diteliti satu persatu bagaimana pengendalian perang itu dilaksanakan.

Dimensi baru dari peperangan ini memberi indikasi bahawa peperangan menentang keganasan atau war on terror yang dimulakan di Afghanistan tidak mungkin akan dapat dimenangi oleh kuasa-kuasa perang kerana ramainya pihak awam yang terkorban.

Jumlah ramainya orang awam yang terkorban menggambarkan bahawa tidak mudah bagi kuasa penakluk dan penjajah untuk memenangi hati nurani rakyat dalam peperangan yang berlaku, bahkan ia meningkatkan simpat rakyat kepada para pejuang yang dianggap pengganas tetapi mereka mengatakan mereka adalah pejuang yang bangkit mempertahankan negara mereka.

Regim Hamid Karzai sendiri yang diangkat oleh kuasa penakluk dan penjajah sering memberi kritikan dan kecaman pedas terhadap tentera multinasional Nato terhadap pengendalian perang mereka yang menyebabkan lebih ramai orang awam yang terkorban.

Lebih ramai orang awam yang terkorban lebih meningkatkan lagi simpati rakyat dan umum terhadap para pejuang dan merumitkan lagi usaha kuasa penakluk dan penjajah untuk menukarkan arah perang untuk berpihak kepada mereka.

Dalam situasi sedemikian tidaklah mudah bagi kuasa AS dan barat untuk mencapai matlamat kemenangan dalam peperangan yang dikendalikan mereka kerana ciri-ciri untuk mereka mencapai kemenangan tidak berpihak kepadanya.

Para pejuang terus meningkatkan perjuangan mereka berdasarkan hakikat bahawa lebih ramai tentera AS dan sekutu Natonya yang terkorban. Ia adalah sebagai petunjuk bahawa serangan-serangan berani mati, bom kereta dan tepi jalan yang mereka laksanakan mencapai sasarannya.

Tidak mudah untuk mengenal pasti pejuang Taliban kerana mereka berada di tengah-tengah masyarakat, kecuali mereka yang beroperasi di kawasan-kawasan pergunungan dan bukit- bukau. Disebabkan keadaan ini menyebabkan tentera AS dan Nato sering tersasar dalam serangan-serangan mereka menyebabkan orang awam menjadi mangsa yang terkorban.

Para pejuang bergaul bersama masyarakat pada waktu-waktu tertentu dan pada waktu yang lain pula berperanan melaksanakan tugas dan tanggungjawab sebagai pejuang menyebabkan tidak mudah bagi tentera AS dan Nato mengenali mereka.

Dalam dokumen rahsia yang didedahkan tercatat juga nama-nama mereka yang mengambil upah menjadi perisik-perisik yang memberi maklumat kepada tentera AS dan Nato tentang aktiviti pejuang Taliban bagi memudahkan tentera penakluk mengatur strategi dan operasi dalam perang yang panjang ini.

Pendedahan nama-nama ini meletakkan mereka yang mengambil upah sebagai perisik ini berada dalam bahaya dan mereka akan menjadi sasaran pihak pejuang Taliban untuk dimusnahkan. Dokumen-dokumen rahsia yang didedahkan ini juga menunjukkan betapa kebocoran maklumat berlaku di sana-sini dan tingginya kadar rasuah sepanjang pengendalian perang Afghanistan ini.

Turut didedahkan dalam maklumat rahsia itu ialah bahawa agen –agen perisik Pakistan terlibat membantu pejuang Taliban dalam operasinya mensasarkan tentera AS da n Nato. Dakwaan ini bagaimana pun dinafikan sekeras-kerasnya oleh pihak perisikan Pakistan.

Pendedahan ini agak anih kerana di satu pihak tentera Pakistan sedang melakukan serangan habis-habisan terhadap kedudukan Taliban Pakistan di Wazirstan dan di Pashwar, ibu wilayah North West Frontier (NWF) dan Lembah Swat, dekat Pashwar yang kini sedang dilanda banjir paling besar sejak 80 tahun lalu dan pada masa yang sama didakwa membantu pejuang Taliban di Afghanistan.

Kesahihan maklumat rahsia ini masih menjadi tanda tanya dan pendedahan nya adakah disengajakan atau tidak disengajakan dan apa tujuannya masih tidak dapat dipastikan, tetapi Presiden Obama dalam kenyataannya telah mengecam kebocoran maklumat perang selama lebih sembilan tahun itu.

Kecelaruan dalam pengendalian perang Afghanistan ini jelas terserlah bukan setakat berlakunya kebocoran maklumat rahsia ini tetapi juga berlakunya pertukaran pemerintah pimpinan tertinggi AS dalam perang Afghanistan ini.

Perang Afghanistan atau perang menentang keganasan atau war on terror dari mula hari pertama lagi sudah tidak betul perjalanan dan pengendaliannya dan sentiasa di selubungi dengan sesuatu yang melakarkan bahawa ia suatu perlakuan jenayah perang dan kemanusiaan.

*Penulis ialah Perunding Media di Kuala Lumpur.

Tentera Belanda tamat misi di Afghanistan

KABUL 1 Ogos - Tentera Belanda menamatkan misi mereka di Afghanistan hari ini selepas empat tahun menyertai misi tentera bersekutu diketuai Amerika Syarkat (AS) di negara ini.

Pakar menyifatkan langkah itu sebagai isyarat permulaan pengunduran tentera asing dari bumi Afghanistan dalam peperangan yang berlarutan selama sembilan tahun dan dijangka memburukkan keganasan yang dipimpin kumpulan Taliban.

Pegawai kedutaan Belanda di Kabul berkata, upacara kecil sambutan "perubahan perintah" diadakan di pangkalan tentera utama di tengah wilayah Uruzgan di mana kebanyakan 1,950 tentera Belanda ditempatkan.

Pasukan Bantuan Keselamatan Antarabangsa Pertubuhan Perjanjian Atlantik Utara (ISAF), yang meminta Belanda untuk melanjutkan misi mereka setahun lagi, memberi penghormatan kepada sumbangan negara itu dan berkata, mereka akan mengekalkan keupayaan di kawasan tersebut.

"Tentera Belanda telah memberi perkhidmatan yang cemerlang di Uruzgan dan kami memberi penghormatan atas pengorbanan mereka dan rakan sejawat dari Afghanistan semasa Belanda ditempatkan di wilayah ini.

"Kami merancang untuk menukarkan kepada operasi baru pelbagai negara bagi memastikan kelancaran peralihan... Kami akan mengekalkan keupayaan semasa," kata jurucakap ISAF, Major Joel Harper, dalam satu kenyataan.

Penempatan pasukan tentera Belanda di Afghanistan bermula pada 2006 dan sejak itu seramai 24 anggotanya terbunuh dalam operasi di negara ini.

Permintaan NATO kepada Belanda untuk memanjangkan misi tentera mereka mencetuskan krisis politik yang menyebabkan kerajaan Belanda tumbang pada Februari lalu.

NATO dan AS menempatkan 150,000 anggota tentera di negara ini, namun angka kematian yang semakin meningkat di pihak tentera beserkutu telah menyebabkan tekanan politik di AS dan negara-negara sekutunya disebabkan para pengundi berang dengan jumlah korban tentera negara mereka dalam peperangan di Afghanistan.

Korban tentera AS pada bulan ini merupakan yang tertinggi dengan 66 kematian.

Jumlah tentera asing yang terbunuh dalam peperangan di Afghanistan setakat ini ialah seramai 408, menurut catatan AFP berdasarkan data yang disimpan laman web - AFP

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